Prostate adenoma: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

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The prostate is an important gland that is part of the male reproductive system. The prostate is found under the bladder and is arranged around the urethra. The urethra is a thin tube-shaped structure through which sperm and urine are removed from the body.

Together with two other glands called seminal vesicles, the prostate produces the seminal fluid. Urine usually exits the bladder through the portion of the urethra that the prostate surrounds and leaves the body.

In case of prostate adenoma, the enlarged prostate can press on the urethra, causing a blockage and urination problems. Prostate adenoma (or benign prostatic hyperplasia) occurs when cells in the prostate multiply, causing it to enlarge. A lot of men worldwide are faced with prostate adenoma.

According to studies, the prostate weighs, on average:

  • 25-30 grams (g) for men aged between 40 and 49 years
  • 30–40 g for men aged between 50 and 59 years
  • 35–45 g in men over 60 years old

Prostate adenoma is a benign disease, which means that it is not cancerous. However, it can cause urinary infections and other complications.

Some men with prostate adenoma have no symptoms and do not need treatment. However, if the symptoms are bothersome or there is a risk of complications, the doctor can recommend treatment.



  1. What is prostate adenoma, in short?
  2. Prostate adenoma – causes and risk factors
  3. Symptoms in patients with prostate adenoma
  4. Diagnosis of prostate adenoma
  5. Prostate adenoma treatment
  6. Complications


What, in short, is prostate adenoma?

Prostate adenoma is a condition also known as enlarged prostate or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This problem occurs when prostate cells begin to multiply. These excess cells cause the prostate to swell, which puts pressure on the urethra and restricts the flow of urine.

BPH is not a malignant disease of the prostate, nor does it increase the risk of prostate cancer. However, it is a problem that disrupts the quality of life.

Men over 50 are the most prone to prostate adenoma. Fortunately, there are products, such as ProstaMill , that contribute to the health of the prostate and to the relief of symptoms caused by its conditions.

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Prostate adenoma – causes and risk factors

The prostate is a gland located under the urinary bladder. The tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body (urethra) passes through the center of the prostate. When the prostate enlarges, it starts to block the flow of urine.

In the case of most men, the prostate enlarges constantly throughout life. In addition, in many men, this enlargement continued long enough that the prostate significantly blocked the flow of urine.

Specialists are not convinced of the exact cause of prostate enlargement. However, many men, as they age, develop prostate adenoma due to the imbalance of sex hormones.

Risk factors

The risk factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia are:


Prostate enlargement rarely causes signs and symptoms in men under the age of 40. About a third of men show moderate or severe symptoms of prostate adenoma by the age of 60, and about half show them by the age of 80.

Family history

The risk of prostate adenoma is higher among those who have blood relatives, such as a father or a brother, who have prostate problems.

Diabetes and heart diseases

According to studies, diabetes, as well as heart disease and the use of beta-blockers could increase the risk of prostate adenoma.


Obesity increases the risk of prostate adenoma, while regular exercise can reduce the risk.

Also, there are products that maintain the health of the prostate, such as ON Prostagood , a food supplement that contributes to the maintenance of urinary function in men.

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Symptoms in patients with prostate adenoma

Symptoms of prostate adenoma are often very mild at first, but tend to worsen if left untreated. Among the most common symptoms are:

  • the frequent need to urinate
  • weak urine stream
  • incomplete emptying of the bladder
  • nocturia, a problem manifested by the need to urinate two or more times a night
  • urinary incontinence or leakage of urine
  • slowed or delayed urinary flow
  • pain when urinating
  • blood in the urine

Talk to your doctor if you have any of these symptoms. They are treatable and treating them can help prevent complications.

Diagnosis of prostate adenoma

The doctor will ask questions about the patient’s symptoms and medical history. He will also perform some tests to rule out other conditions with similar symptoms, such as:

  • prostate cancer
  • inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis)
  • kidney stones

Tests for the diagnosis of enlarged prostate

Among the analyzes that the doctor could recommend are:

Rectal examination

The examination is called rectal cough. During the rectal examination, the doctor puts on a glove, applies lubricant to the finger and inserts it into the rectum to check the shape, size and thickness of the prostate.


During cystoscopy, the doctor inserts a thin tube with a camera at the tip to visualize the inside of the bladder and urethra.

Urine analysis

The purpose of urine tests is to detect possible urinary infections.

Blood Tests

PSA (prostate specific antigen) is a chemical substance produced by the prostate. A high PSA level could indicate a prostate problem.

Transrectal ultrasound

This ultrasound scan indicates any changes in the appearance of the prostate.

In some cases, the doctor may prescribe additional tests to rule out other conditions.

Prostate adenoma treatment

Doctors recommend the type of treatment depending on the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, no treatment is necessary.

For example, doctors may recommend keeping the situation under observation if the person has mild symptoms or if they do not show any symptoms of prostate adenoma at all. This monitoring may involve an annual prostate exam and a check of symptoms.

Pharmaceutical treatment

The drugs recommended for the treatment of enlarged prostate are:

Alpha blockers

These drugs relax the muscle tissue in the urethra, automatically improving the flow of urine. However, they can have side effects, such as low blood pressure and dizziness.

5-alpha-reductase inhibitors

They shrink the prostate, thus improving urinary problems. In addition, according to specialists, they can reduce the risk of prostate cancer by approximately 25%.

Sometimes the doctor may prescribe a combination of drugs.

Minimally invasive surgery

Surgical intervention is recommended if the drugs are not effective. Usually, a minimally invasive procedure is performed, such as:

Prostatic urethral lift

The doctor uses a needle to insert implants that raise the prostate so that it does not press the urethra.

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)

The doctor inserts an endoscope into the urethra to remove all the tissue, except the outer portion of the prostate, to improve urinary flow.

Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT)

The specialist inserts an electrode through the urethra to the prostate area to remove the unwanted tissue.

Transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP)

This procedure is similar to transurethral resection of the prostate, but in this case the doctor does not remove the prostate, but makes an incision to restore urinary flow.

Simple prostatectomy

The doctor makes an incision in the abdomen or perineum, removing the inner part of the prostate and leaving the outer part.


Surgical intervention is recommended for people facing serious symptoms of prostate adenoma. The purpose of the operation is to remove any tissue that causes blockage of the urinary flow. There are several types of surgery, some of which are more invasive than others.


The symptoms of prostate adenoma can be easily ignored. However, it is essential to receive treatment in time to avoid potentially dangerous complications. Contact your doctor if you notice symptoms of prostate adenoma.

People who have prostate adenoma for a long time may develop the following complications:

  • urinary infections
  • bladder stones
  • kidney problems
  • bleeding in the urinary tract

Sometimes, urinary obstruction caused by prostate adenoma is so severe that urine cannot leave the bladder. This situation can be dangerous, because the urine remains in the bladder and can cause urinary infections and kidney problems.


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